The majority of Earth’s volcanoes and earthquakes take place along the Ring of Fire. The surface of the Earth is made up of tectonic plates that lie beneath both the land and oceans of our planet. KOBE EARTHQUAKE OF 1995. The Kobe quake was a result of an east-west strike-slip fault where the Eurasian and Philippine plates interact. system or order of a nation, state, or other political unit. This quake, 7.2 on the Richter Scale, was the worst in half and century. It is written by Toshi Matsui, a Japanese university student. The movement was caused by the friction from the Eurasian and Philippine plates converging. On the other hand the Kobe Earthquake effects were magnified by man-made issues. Like all earthquakes, the Kobe earthquake was caused by a sudden movement of the tectonic plates that make up the crust of the earth. …1995, following the January 17 Kōbe earthquake that devastated the Kōbe area in west-central Japan. The earthquake in Kobe on January, 17, 1995 left 6,425 dead, injured 25,000, displaced 300,000 people, damaged or destroyed 100,000 buildings and caused at least $132 billion worth of damage, or about 2.5 percent of Japan’s national income, making it one of the most expensive natural disasters in history. The focus of the earthquake was 16km beneath the epicentre, 20km from the city of Kobe.Japan, ironically, was named the “most earthquake … Japan has not experienced such a damaging earthquake since 1923, when an estimated magnitude-8.3 earthquake killed about 143,000 people in the Tokyo area. These tectonic plates rest upon the convecting mantle, which causes them to move. Building codes in California require builders to meet standards set to minimize structural damage in an earthquake and coastal cities have building code to reinforce roofs and walls to resist a storm’s high winds. Sustainability Policy |  It lasted about 20 seconds and registered as a magnitude 6.9 (7.3 on the Richter scale). Pacific and Philippines. Authorities who had proclaimed the superior earthquake-resistance capabilities of Japanese construction were quickly proved wrong by the collapse of numerous supposedly earthquake-resistant buildings, rail lines, elevated highways, and port facilities in the Kōbe area. Earthquakes of these types are especially frequent in the coastal regions of northeastern Japan. Kobe, Japan is near 3 tectonic plates (great big slabs of the earths crust that move around due to the convection currents massive circuits of lava under the surface of the earth.) If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the corner of the media viewer. massive slab of solid rock made up of Earth's lithosphere (crust and upper mantle). Its estimated death toll of 6,400 made it the worst earthquake to hit Japan since the Tokyo-Yokohama (Great Kantō) earthquake of 1923, which had killed more than 140,000. Otherwise, the deeper part and the shallower part of the Rokko fault sytems might generate different series of characteristic earthquakes. For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. Teach your students about plate tectonics using these classroom resources. Kobe was largely affected, as the epicentre was only 30 km from the city centre. It also permanently changed the shapes of the fields. You cannot download interactives. One of the most devastating earthquakes takes place in Japan! The Kobe earthquake, also referred to as the Great Hanshin earthquake, was a 7.3-magnitude earthquake that rocked the Hyōgo Prefecture of Japan on the dawn of January 17, 1995. Why: To help you achieve your target level for your first Geography assessment! The Kōbe quake’s devastation included 40,000 injured, more than 300,000 homeless residents, and in excess of 240,000 damaged homes, with millions of homes in the region losing electric or water service. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. This is the deadliest tsunami since the 2004 magnitude 9.1 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami caused nearly 230,000 deaths and $10 billion in damage. For example, if you live in northern California you are more likely to be impacted by a wildfire, landslide, or earthquake than if you live in Charleston, South Carolina, but less likely to be hit by a hurricane. Success Criteria: By the end of today’s lesson you should be able to: Identify 1 cause, 1 effect and 1 response of the earthquake Describe why the quake happened and … Kōbe earthquake of 1995, (Jan. 17, 1995) large-scale earthquake in the Ōsaka-Kōbe (Hanshin) metropolitan area of western Japan that was among the strongest, deadliest, and costliest to ever strike that country. Learn more about environmental hazards with this curated resource collection. The Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake was not only powerful ( magnitude 6.9 ), but with the epicentre only 20km southwest of the city, it resulted in massive damage to property and loss of life. 102,000. buildings destroyed in Kobe. The problem was pervasive because the majority of the waterfront facilities were reclaimed lands consisting of loose to medium-dense cohesionless fills. The Great Hanshin Earthquake measured 7.2 on the Richter scale and lasted over 20 seconds. Earthquakes are more common in some parts of the world than others, because some places, like California, sit on top of the meeting point, or fault, of two plates. The earthquake was notable for exposing the vulnerability of the infrastructure. When those plates scrape against each other and cause an earthquake, the results can be deadly and devastating. Updates? On the other hand, the Kobe region was thought to be fairly safe in terms of seismic activity. The earthquake resulted in more than 6,000 deaths and over 30,000 injuries. When you reach out to him or her, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource. This is because the physical conditions in each place are different. Terms of Service |  The January 17, 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake of magnitude 7.2 in JMA scale (Mw = 6.9), which struck Kobe, Japan and its surrounding area was the most severe earthquake to affect that region this century. c) What were the effects caused by the earthquake? Omissions? It occurred on January 17, 1995 at 5:46 am 52 seconds in the southern part of Hyogo Prefecture and lasted for approximately 20 seconds. The earthquake was caused by a sudden jolt as the Philippine Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Building knocked off its foundation by the January 1995 earthquake in Kōbe, Japan. All rights reserved. This comparison, along with other structural and geotechnical information that is available, would seem to suggest that the greater damage and the larger numbers of deaths, casualties, and homeless sustained during the Kobe Earthquake were likely caused by the aggregated effects of an extremely dense population, an older building stock, and the predominance of poor soils in the strongly shaken area. Privacy Notice |  Code of Ethics, On January 17, 1995, a major earthquake struck near Kobe, Japan, killing more than 6,000 and making more than 45,000 people homeless.4. The magnitude 7.2 earthquake in Kobe, Japan has resulted in extensive damage and a shocking number of fatalities and injuries. The earthquake had a shallow focus, only 16 km below the surface, which had caused it to become so destructive. The quake caused Awaji island to be lifted in the north by 1.5metres. The 1995 Kobe earthquake was the worst to hit Japan since the 1923 Kanto earthquake, which had an estimated Richter magnitude of 7.9 and resulted in nearly 143,000 deaths, primarily due to fire. Earthquake Kobe Japan 1995 . Burning and collapsed buildings in Kōbe, Japan, after the January 1995 earthquake. Also called lithospheric plate. Mechanism of the earthquake Most of the largest earthquakes in Japan are caused by subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate or Pacific Plate, with mechanisms that involve either energy released within the subducting plate or the accumulation and sudden release of stress in the overlying plate. The earthquake caused 5100 deaths, mainly in Kobe. The movements of these plates can build mountains or cause volcanoes to erupt. any area on Earth with one or more common characteristics. She or he will best know the preferred format. 1145 17th Street NW Taking into consideration the entire Kobe and Aum Tokyo scenarios together with the earlier, possibly Aum-related, fireball-explosion-earthquake events of 28 May 1993 at Banjawarn, Western Australia, one is left with a very strong impression of a serious "EM fire" underlying the visible "dark plume of smoke" that rose over Kobe. The Ring of Fire is a string of volcanoes and sites of seismic activity, or earthquakes, around the edges of the Pacific Ocean. having to do with the physical formations of the Earth. Oceanic plates subducted to cause the earthquake. © 1996 - 2020 National Geographic Society. Eurasian. The Hanshin earthquake was the worst earthquake in Japan since the 1923 Tokyo earthquake, which is also called the Great Kanto earthquake. The Great Hanshin earthquake, or the Kobe earthquake as it is more commonly known overseas, was an earthquake in Japan that measured 7.2 on the Japanese Scale. Kōbe earthquake of 1995, also called Great Hanshin earthquake, Japanese in full Hanshin-Awaji Daishinsai (“Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster”), (Jan. 17, 1995) large-scale earthquake in the Ōsaka-Kōbe (Hanshin) metropolitan area of western Japan that was among the strongest, deadliest, and costliest to ever strike that country. Ban went to the city in February, and by the end of the summer his relief work had brought 22 paper-tube cabins to shelter some of those who had lost their homes and a “paper…. Regions are the basic units of geography. The Kobe Earthquake of January 17, 1995 might not be a characteristic event on the Rokko fault system but an episodic event on subsidiary faults. An emergency transportation network was also devised, and evacuation centres and shelters were set up in Kōbe by the Hyōgo prefectural government. The earthquake hit at 5:46 am on Tuesday, Jan. 17, 1995, in the southern part of Hyōgo Everything We Know About What Caused Kobe Bryant’s Helicopter to Crash News On 6 From dreams to tragedy. Measured at a magnitude of 7.6 (slightly less than that of the 1906 San Francisco quake), the earthquake caused major destruction in northern Pakistan, northern India, and Afghanistan, an area that lies on an active fault caused by the northward tectonic drift of the Indian subcontinent. Port and waterfront facilities in Kobe, Japan, suffered extensive damage due to liquefaction during the 1995 Kobe earthquake. Most of the largest earthquakes in Japan are caused by subduction of the Philippine Sea Plate or Pacific Plate, with mechanisms that involve either energy released within the subducting plate or the accumulation and sudden release of stress in the overlying plate. In the aftermath of the Kōbe disaster, roads, bridges, and buildings were reinforced against another earthquake, and the national government revised its disaster response policies (its response to the 2004 quake in Niigata prefecture was much faster and more effective). The Great Kanto earthquake claimed 140,000 lives. The quake cost more than $100 billion in damage, and the Kobe government spent years construct ing new facilities to attract back the 50,000 people who left after the quake. Something Kobe was unprepared! The clash of these plates can also cause violent earthquakes, where Earth’s surface shakes. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. large settlement with a high population density. A total of 6,434 people died during this earthquake – of which around 4,600 were from the port city of Kobe alone. However, this was the eighth earthquake in Japan in this century that caused more than 1,000 2 The extract below is taken from an eyewitness account of the Kobe earthquake. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. The government was heavily criticized for its slow and ineffectual response, as well as its initial refusal to accept help from foreign countries. 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